Level of Creativity
to the Level of Creativity
On this page you can read the results of the research we did on "Level of Creativity"
for the course Creating in Project Teams
Before we explain to you what the level of creativity is, we first have to determine what creativity actually is. What are the theories behind it and more importantly what do we think is the way to formulate creativity.
What is Creativity?
There are a lot of of different definitions of creativity. All of them overlapping eachother in one way or another. In the past critics have argued that the topic of creativity is too large to study. As a response of this criticism (Rhodes, 1961)0.1
, a researcher of creativity, attempted to find a unifying definition of creativity.
According to Rhodes there is no basic definition of creativity. He stated: " As I inspect my collection, I observed that the definitions are not mutually exclusive. They overlap and intertwine. When analyzed as through a prism, the content of the definitions form four strands. Each strand has unique identity academically, but only in unity do the four strands operate functionally". These four strands were called the 4 P's of creativity.
4 P's of creativity
In this wiki we will be analyzing 2 of these "P's". Person
, the individual that undergoes a certain creative act and the influence of the Press
(factors) on this.Who choose these two becuase we thought they would be the most interesting. So in short we want to analyze the factors that influence the level of creativity of an individual.
Creativity is the ability to create something novel, useful and/or understandable.
It does not have to be novel, useful or understanding for the world, but mainly for yourself.
: Something new, unique or unusual
: Response to a need or answers a question
: Reproducible, not based on coincidence
is determined by skill skill:Learned capacity or talent to carry out pre-determined results.
Level of Creativity
During our session we did a test where we asked the a group of students to draw as much as they could from the circles on the paper.
We looked at the amount of different ideas that were generated using single circles (quantitative) and the amount of ideas that were generated with multiple circles (the more circles used per drawing, the higher the quality)
For an example on this, see: TestPapers
What we found was that a lot of people had quantitively creative ideas but only a few had qualitively creative ideas.
The level of creativity can be "measured" on quality and quantity. However to measure quality and quantity against each other is very hard because it is difficult to find the sufficient amount of quantity that can overcome the quality of something.
Wheather the creative individual performs a creative act or just has a creative thought, the level of creativity can be enhanced or decreased. By the creative act we mean doing something that has not yet been done before or use something in a way it has not been used before. Creative thought is the idea of something different.
According to theory there are different levels of creativity
. Some of these levels are basic and others can be achieved by creative stimulating methods (see wiki HowToStimulateCreativity
). These theories also argue that there are different steps that have to be followed to reach the extremes.
We agree that there are different levels of creativity and that your personal level can be increased or decreased, but we do not want to put a margine on it. This is why we choose to look at the extremes (more and less) and what causes an individual to reach these extremes.
But what are these factors exactly? We summed up a lot of factors and came to the conclusion that they could be devided in internal and external factors.
Internal and External factors
* In the graph we added a few of the suggestions that were made during our presentation.
From the factors above, mood etc. are from the session.
Some of the factors can be both internal and external factors, for example motivation. This is further explained on the related chapters.
A few of these factors are more relevant than others. So we decided to leave out what we found were less relevant factors and cluster the remaining into 5 different factor groups:
These influence of these five factors are discussed below. However, you need to consider that the factors overlap and intertwine each other, so that also factors can influence each other and not only creativity. This refers to the picture above on which the circles overlap.
"Education is what remains after one has forgotten what one has learned in school"(Albert Einstein)
The first factor we want to discuss is education. Since the beginning of time education has been used as a tool to get people informed. Where we started of with a lot of inventions that were a bit limited, we now have innovations we use in our daily live. Education has changed over time and so have the people who are educated. In todays society eveything is based on fact, tests and theories. For example this wiki, without references it is just a whole lot of stuff we made up. According to the quote given above education is everything we learn outside of the classroom. One of the reasons for this is probably the fact that everything we learn ouside of the classroom in learned by experiencing it or by self education. Not by a teacher who shows you the facts and figures.
In this part of the wiki we want to give you some basic information on the effect education has on our creativity.
Sir Ken Robinson - Do schools kill creativity?
In this video Ken Robinson (British author)
describes how he feels about the influence of the education system on creativity. He is an internationally recognized leader in the development of innovation and human resources.
We want to take a closer look at 2 of the statements made.
"Kids will take a chance, if they don't know, they'll give it a go".
There is an English saying what you don't know can't hurt you, which is very aplicable for this statement.
For example, if you don't know what a microwave is supposed to do you will never know how it works. You might push all the buttons and it will make funny sounds which you can associate with making music. When the door is open there is a light, which you can associate with a night light next to your bed, and so on. There are a lot of different interpitations to something, you just need to find the right one.
The conclusion from this is that kinds base the thing they say on what they know. So if they don't know, anything is possible.
"Children don't grow into creativity, they grow out of it".
According to the U-curve model of artistic developement(e.g. Gardner & Winner, 1982; Davis, 1997)1.1
children their artistic creativity can be compared to that of adult artist. By the time they reach puberty a lot of them have grown out of these artistic qualities.
More on the U-curve
Words of a feather
(* Definitions according to wikipedia )
Education: Process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skill and value from one generation to another.
Knowledge: Expertise, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education.
Experience: Knowledge of, or skill in, or observation of some thing or some event gained through involvement in or exposure to that thing or event
Skill : Learned capacity to carry out pre-determined results often with the minimum outlay of time, energy or both.
Analysing the definitions above we can conclude that education leads to knowledge, knowledge leads to experience and experience leads to skill. In our definition we stated that the ability to be creative comes from our skill. This skill origins from our education.1.2
In all the factors that can influence the level of creativity, the environment is one of the more obvious ones. Because we want to analyze how the factors can enhance or decrease the level of creativity, this chapter will be organized in positive and negative influences on your creativity. Environment must be seen in the broader sense of the word, it's not only the place you're in, but also the people (group) you are in, the weather and other surroundings.
First of all, there are many ways of expressing creativity. For example creative brainstorming within a (small) group or individually, or creative problem solving. And in all cases, the environment, e.g. the surroundings differ very much. We want to give you an idea on how to create a positive creative environment.
The obvious influences
If you think of a room in which you can be creative, it is obvious that things like lighting, odor and sound are influences that have to be to the liking of the persons in that room. Many studies have been conducted regarding the amount of light in a room, working with nice and bad aromas and the kind of music or sounds that are present in the room. For instance lighting will influence the amount of concentration that you can apply when doing your job. Research in the journal Motivation and Emotion concludes: “An extensive body of research evidence indicates that the way people feel can strongly influence the way they think and the way they behave.” (cf. Isen, 1987)2.1
The odor in the room does not have to be distracting and of course not too smelly. When for example the smell of lavender is being spread, it does not mean the ability to become more creative is magically switched on, the smell of lavender is just nice and is seen as an normal factor of your surroundings. (Knasko, 1992)2.2
For the amount of noise in the room, if you enjoy music during your work and it will not be too distracting, you can still perform. It might be clear that for some people, very loud heavy metal is not very helpful for the concentration, but some others might see it as an inspiration. Some people might not like music at all during their work. This also is a very personal subject and differs for each person.
Creative environments can also be found with ‘famous’ people. Writers had to make an environment in which they felt comfortable to create their first book, musicians had to get in the right mood with the right inspirational music to make their first album. But when you ask famous people what their inspiration is, most of the time the answer will be their inspirations from the present. But to get know what the environment looked like when they created their first ‘most creative’ breakthrough is most interesting.
An interviewer, Anil Dash, describes on his blog
interviews he conducted with Jeff Bezos (Amazon.com), Ray Ozzie (Microsoft) and Pierre Omidyar (eBay) on the environment in which they created their first creative ideas. Since these are all examples of people in the ICT sector, they all could remember in great detail which computers they used. They also described what the room looked like and what made them comfortable.
The outcome of these interviews is that you just need the objects that are needed for the tasks which you want to perform. The environment itself does not have to be very big, luxurious or special, most of them started in a garage or a small room in a civil house that was converted into an office. For example in the previous interviews whiteboards to write all the ideas on or a whole bunge of the most sophisticated computers to set up one of the biggest software distributors.They just created an environment in which they
felt comfortable and in which they had the right gear to be creative.
How to create an creative environment?
In this wiki, we will only consider the individual. But if you are in a project team, how about the environment then? In that case, as an individual, the group is part of your environment. To make yourself at ease with the others in the group, you also have to make yourself comfortable, but also your ideas should be accepted and discussed about. You have to feel free to get the creative process going, and not feel like every idea will be considered worthless.
There is brainstorming guide, on which you can read how to create a creative environment. What is a creative environment?
Every environment can be interpreted differently by each individual. There are many influences, such as the obvious influences discussed above like lighting and odor, but there also aspects as the size of the room, the location, the weather, the group, your boss and the management. And as all those factors might influence your creativity, they can both decrease and increase your creativity. Also, the environment is not a single standing topic, it can also be interpreted as a limitation, a motivation or competitors can be part of your environment. All the factors have to do with each other in a certain way, and foremost the environment is a factor which is always present.
Development of creativity is influenced by various factors, including the external and internal factors. In this study, we will be discussing and investigating the limitations in different perspectives. Limitation would affect human creativity and make numerous forms in different industries such as in researches, ideas, approaches, situations, strategies, methods, solutions, art, and designs. According to the limitation, studies and researches will be performed to collect relative information including books, articles, internet, and etc. Finally everything will be analyzed and evaluated based on the evidence of collected data, to narrow down the possible conclusions.
Limitation is the essential factor that develops creativity. Basically people taught that freedom of more choices and resources are better to make the optimum decisions. The freedom of abundant choices and information are a wonderful gift indeed. However since an information-oriented society has been dramatically developed from a decade, we often found that much petty choices, unimportant matters, and frivolous decisions toward us as a burden in our daily lives.
Just imagine! How can we make an easy choice among too many different kinds of breakfast cereal?
Today, we may have more freedom in political and social industry, but at the same time we face very freedom in excessive choices and resources. It may matter to us when we aim to construct creative ideas to solve complex problems. Generally our minds even our lives have become more complicated by clutter.
Freedom of choice
We live in an information-oriented society where we are taught to see freedom as the maximization of choice. But this is not true freedom at all. Because we still struggling with the unnecessary and the nonessential information. Having no information and choices can certainly be a bondage to us, but at the same time too many choices can be a bondage to us as well. Abundant choices are great gift indeed, but if we are not careful, we may make our lives busy, complicated, and unnecessary. We may fill ourselves with a sense of vacancy and meaninglessness. Our ideas become more complicated by petty details and wants, and we become ever more confused. Steve Hagen points out in his book Buddhism Plain and Simple, "True freedom does not lie in the maximization of choice, but, ironically, is most easily found in a life where there is little choice."3.1
in his book, talked about the importance of making choice within limitation. He stresses that self-imposed limitation is vital and that the first step to developing a great ideas. Creating a great concept or developing a compelling idea is about making creative choices. The key success of generating creativity is making good decisions about what to leave in or cut out. In the book, he defined the meaning of creativity as "Creativity means creative choices of inclusion and exclusion." 3.2
Creativity with limitation
John Maeda points out limitation in different perspective in his book The Law of simplicity. He talked about the issue of how limited conditions put on creative works can lead to inventive solutions. He said "In the field of design there is the belief that with more limitations, better solutions are revealed ironically. For example, the sense of urgency brings almost always a constraint, yet urgency and the creative spirit go hand in hand." Designers often develop a concept and implement it under such limited circumstances as restricted time, space, and budget. Also many people insist that the idea of creating great work under limited circumstance is relevant for designers. However for those not trained well or does not have efficient skill to accomplish the task, limitation will make them more frustrated and suffer negatively. 3.3
Creating own limitation
talked about the principle of creative limitation in a different view. In his book Story, he stresses that creative limitation means instead of doing something the easy way, do it the hard way with a method that is much more difficult to accomplish. As a result in the struggle situation, naturally people are forcing themselves to be more creative. In the book he said "The more difficult you make it for yourself, the more brilliant solutions you will be achieved." 3.4
Life is about living with limitations and restrictions though, they are not always bad, but often helpful, even inspiring us to think differently and more creatively to view barriers as an opportunity rather than a problem. Some popular saying described the relationship between limitation and creativity as "Limitation is the fertile ground in which the seeds of creativity sprout and grow." When we are limited by such as time, tools, and budget, we can increase our effectiveness by stepping back, thinking carefully, and determining ways in order to accomplish our goals.
Within motivation for creativity two mainstreams can be determined; intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation in this way describes the interest, challenge or satisfaction that a person has for a given topic. Extrinsic motivation is the motivation to reach a goal, win a competition or meet requirements. Motivation is very important if you want to be creative, motivation gives you the strength to continue while stuck. During a project the amount of motivation may fluctuate, when a major breakthrough is reached within a project motivation and therefore creativity can become very high. When a project team is stuck and can’t get on with a project motivation and creativity may drop when it might be needed.4.1, 4.2
Extrinsic motivated people often show intense commitment to their work and are manifested by a fascinated drive to solve problems related to their work. Extrinsic motivation can motivate people by rewarding them if they reach certain goals. If these goals are formulated as creative goals it is likely that this stimulates creativity. The more complex a goal is, for example scientific research, the more creativity is asked. Extrinsic motivation follows from:
- Threat of punishment
Intrinsic motivated people have a very strong connection with the given topic, they are driven by rewards that evolve from the the task itself, the enjoyment or love for playing a game. It is your own personal interest field, it can keep you working the whole night. Everyone remembers forgetting about time and finding yourself still awake busy at three in the morning. Intrinsic motivation follows from:
- Connection with the topic
- Personal goals
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation can work against each other. High levels of intrinsic motivation accompanied with high levels of extrinsic motivation will set up boundaries. A person’s creativity can become less due to these boundaries. The attention of creative people in this way is divided between their extrinsic goals and tasks at hand.
Extrinsic or intrinsic? Are you reaching for the goal or exploring the maze. Do you enjoy making the maze and are you involved in this task or are you only looking at the task description and going for the easy solution. A small test during our session stated when people are extrinsic motivated for this test by rewarding them, people tend to choose the fastest route.
Wheather you are intrinsic or extrinsic motivated, motivation helps a lot in the creative process. The given example was executed during a session which showed that extrinsic motivated people tend to go for the short route, and therefore be less creative. Other researches show that extrinsic motivation leads to more creativity. It is important to find out for yourself before starting a project to determine your motivation and your source of motivation. Do not let motivation slow you down on creativity.
Creativity is influenced by a lot of contextual factors, one of those is Competitors and the Competition that follows. At this moment the actual influence of competition is unknown. Several commentators have argued that competition serves as an external constraint that reduces intrinsic motivation and subsequent creativity (Shalley, Oldham, 1997). The basic argument here is that when individuals are competing with others, they are likely to focus their attention on the goal of winning the competition rather than on the task itself (Shalley, Oldham, 1997). As a consequence, motivation is expected to shift from intrinsic to extrinsic, resulting in lowered levels of creative performance. Results of previous research provide only mixed and inconsistent support for this position. Competition can be defided into external and internal competition without knowing if the influence will be negative or positive. The influence on individual performance depends how you or your group deals with this external or internal competition. One of the influences can be the nature of the working group/team, if there is creative rivalry or creative collaboration. Although several studies using a variety of experimental tasks (e.g., artwork, idea generation, and word association) show that competition results in lowered creativity, other studies show that the presence of competition actually boosts the creative responses of individuals (Shalley, Oldham, 1997). One explanation for the inconsistent results described here is suggested by the cognitive evaluation theory (Shalley, Oldham, 1997)
The Cognitive Evaluation Theory
The theory named as the Cognitive Evaluation Theory (Shalley, Oldham, 1997) suggests that all external conditions have two essential aspect, a controlling aspect
and an informational aspect
. The theory posits that these aspect can influence intrinsic motivation differently and thereby also creativity, depending on which aspect is more salient. Like other contextual factors (e.g. evaluation, feedback and verbal rewards), competition apparently has both informational and controlling components. However this does not mean that every research on creative competition will have results which are consitent with the cognitive evaluation theory.
The Controlling Aspect
In a case were the controlling aspect is more salient, it is expected that intrinsic motivation will decrease. In that case an individual's behavior is maintained or modified (i.e. controlled) by the presence of one or more external conditions. The persons individual behavior perceives that he or she is engaging in the task or will perform the task in a certain way because of this external factor.
When individuals are competing with others who are physically present and visible the controlling aspect of competition should be most salient. In this condition, competitiors are both proximal and conspicuous (Shalley, Oldham, 1997) and are likely to be perceived as higly salient. The image of losing the competition in this context is likely to signal a number of potentially negative outcomes (e.g. embarrassment and loss of self-esteem; Shalley, Oldham, 1997) and therefore cause individuals to shift their focus of attention from the task itself to the goal of winning the competition. Individuals should experience a decrease in intrinsic motivation and produce work low in creativity because this focus on winning. When individuals are competing with others who are physically present and visible the controlling aspect of competition should be most salient. In this condition, competitiors are both proximal and conspicuous and are likely to be perceived as higly salient. The image of losing the competition in this context is likely to signal a number of potentially negative outcomes (e.g. embarrassment and loss of self-esteem; Shalley, Oldham, 1997) and therefore cause individuals to shift their focus of attention from the task itself to the goal of winning the competition. Individuals should experience a decrease in intrinsic motivation and produce work low in creativity because this focus on winning.
The Informational Aspect
When the informational aspect is more salient, the presence of the external competitors is viewed as providing information to the individual about his or her competence, and intrinsic motivation is expected to be enhanced. The individual will not feel that his or her behavior is controlled by an external condition but that the presence of this condition provides valuable information about how well he or she is performing. The detrimental effects of constraints on intrinsic motivation are thought to derive from the controlling aspect; the informational aspect counteracts these detrimental effects and can increase intrinsic motivation.There are three conditions
were the informational aspect of competition should be relatively salient. Mainly this depends on the visibility of the competital factor (Shalley, Oldham,
The role of gender
There are researches that suggest that the influence of competition depends on gender and masculinity (Conti, Collins, Picariello. 2001). These researches also suggest that the influence of competition depends on gender segregation or integration
and role, or in other words who is competing in the task and especially if it’s a male or female. They show that boys tend to be more competitive and to feel more comfortable in competitive situations than girls. . Men are thought to be more independent, competitive and aggressive, while women are thought to be helpful, gentle and understanding. The results in the graph below show that girls are less creative when competing while boys are more creative.
This research also shows that people will display more masculine behavior when interacting with males, and more feminine behavior when interacting with females. Results of masculinity on competition
show that highly masculine people are more intrinsically motivated when competing, while people low in masculinity were less intrinsically motivated when competing. The interaction between masculinity and gender segregation
showed that children high in masculinity were more intrinsically motivated when seated with their own gender than when at a table with both genders. On the other hand there is no evidence that femininity has an effect on the response on competition. Competition can be interpreted as adding to the excitement and challenge of an activity, thus heightening intrinsic motivation. It can also cause the pressure and tension that reduce intrinsic motivation toward an activity. In order for competition to enhance intrinsic motivation and creativity, a specific social situation must be present. This suggest that this social situation somehow supports people’s sense of masculinity.
Competition can be seen as a limitation or a motivation. The influence of competition depends on the level of two aspects informational and controlling as told in the Cognitive Evaluation Theory
. In general men are more competitive than woman because their higher masculinity. Low masculine people can see competition as a negative limitation which decreases intrinsic motivation. In contrary to this high masculine people can see competition as a positive limitation which enhances intrinsic motivation. To enhance intrinsic motivation and creativity a specific social situation must be present to influence the sense of masculinity.
Personal level of creativity
It is important to realize that the discussed factors influence your own level of creativity. Your creativity level is very personal and therefore the influence of these factors can have different outcomes on different people. There is no ideal situation that fits everyone to maximize their level of creativity. It is your task to find out what works well for you, and at which moment your level of creativity is influenced positively. A short overview of the discussed factors with their and the questions you can ask yourself to find out in which way this factor will influence your level of creativity:
Does knowledge slow me down on creativity?
In which environment do i feel comfortable?
How easy can i overcome different sort of limitations when they occur?
Do intrinsic or extrinsic factors drive me more to achieve goals?
Am I stimulated or annoyed by competition?
After you have answered these questions you are at least aware of the influence of these factors on your level of creativity. To share this with other people you can make a personal overview of these factors like shown below. It is important for yourself to understand how these factors influence your creativity, it is a learning process and your own preference can change within time. Being familiar with these factors and practicing will give you insight in your situation.
On the left you see Sandra with her favorite creative factors, on the right John has different factors. They still can both end up with the same level of creativity.
Level of creativity and design teams
The level of creativity is very important within design teams. Before you start a creative process with your design group it is very important to answer the questions stated above and compare these with eachother. By the insight of this and combined with creative methods from the Stimulating Creativity
a project group can become more creative then without this knowledge. Maybe some people need to go outside to find inspiration while others need a silent place. Respect the others situation and dare to try different methods, you never know how something is gonna influence your creativity without actually trying it!
Good to knows
Aside from the fact that an individual can inhace/ decrease their level of creativity, individuals that possess an equal level of creativity may exhibit their creativity in two very different ways due to their style of creativity
The charactaristics of cognitive style
- Measured over a period of time an individual's cognitive style will remain relatively the same. Style is not an either-or situation.
- Individuals possess some of each style, however each of us prefers one style over the other.
- Styles are value neutral, each style has adaptive value depending on the situation. No one style is consistantly more adaptive than another. Each style possesses its own strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, all styles are valuable and useful.
One of the most promising cognitive style theories to impact the field of creativity is Kirton's (1976) adaptation-innovation distinction
Characteristics of Adaptors and Innovators :
- Characterized by precision, reliability, efficiency, methodicalness, prudence, discipline, and conformity
- Concerned with resolving problems rather than finding them
- Seeks solutions to problems in tried and understood ways
- Reduces problems by improvement and greater efficiency, with maximum of continuity and stability
- Seen as sound, conforming, safe, dependable
- Liable to make goals a means
- Seems impervious to boredom, seems able to maintain high accuracy in long spells of detailed work
- Is an authority within given structures
- Challenges rules rarely, cautiously, when assured of strong support
- Tends to have high self-doubt; reacts to criticism by closer outward conformity; vulnerable to social pressure and authority; compliant
- Is essential to the funcitoning of the institution all the time, but occasionally needs to be "dug out" of is or her systems
- Seen as undisciplined, thinking tangentially, approaching tasks from unsuspected angles
- Could be said to discover problems and discover avenues of solution. omanipulates problems by questioning existing assumptions
- Is catalyst to settled groups, irreverent of their consensual views; seen as abrasive, creating dissonance
- Seen as unsound, impractical; often shocks his or her opposite
- In pursuit of goals treats accepted means with little regard
- Capable of detailed routine work (system maintenance) for only short bursts; quick to delegate routine tasks
- Tends to take control in unstructured situations
- Often challenges rules, has little respect for past custom
- Appears to have low self-doubt when generating ideas, not needing consensus to maintain confidence in face of opposition
- Is at his or her best in unscheduled institutional crises; can even help to avoid them if he or she can channel efforts.
Slides Level of Creativity
Rhodes, M. (1961). An analysis of creativity. Phi Delta Kappan
, p. 305-310.
Gardner & Winner (1982); Davis (1997). First imitations of artistry.
Baron, Robert A., Rea, Mark S., Daniels, Susan G. (1992). Effects of indoor lighting (illuminance and spectral distribution) on the performance of cognitive tasks and interpersonal behaviors: The potential mediating role of positive affect. Motivation and Emotion, Vol. 16, No. 1,
Knasko, Susan C. (1992). Ambient odor's effect on creativity, mood, and perceived health. Chemical Senses, Vol. 17, No.1,
Hagen,S. (1998). Buddhism Plain and Simple. New York : Broadway
, p. 38-39.
Mckee, R. (1997). Story: Substance, Structure, Style, and the Principles of Screenwritingnd. New York: HarperCollins,
Maeda, J. (2006). The Laws of Simplicity. Cambridge: The MIT Press,
Reynolds, G. (2008). Robert McKee
on the power of story (source)
Collins, M.A. & Amabile, T.M. (1999). Motivation and creativity.
In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of Creativity,
Deci, E. (1972), "Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Reinforcement, and Inequity", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 22, No.1,
Lepper, M. R., Greene, D. & Nisbett, R. E. (1973) Undermining children's intrinsic interest with extrinsic rewards: A test of the overjustification hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 28(1), pp. 129-137
Competition and Creative Performance: Effects of competitor Presence and Visibility.
Shalley, Christina E., Oldham, Greg R. (1997). Creativity Research Journal, Vol. 10, No. 4,
Conti R., Collins, M. A., Picariello, Martha L. (2001). The impact of competition on intrinsic motivation and creativity: considering gender, gender segregation and gender role orientation, Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 30,
Clydesdale, Greg (2006). Creativity and Competition: The Beatles, Creativity Research Journal, Vol. 18, No. 2,
List of peer reviews